SPECIAL ISSUE: Homage to Doctor Louis Andral
THE NETWORKS OF ANIMAL EPIDEMIOSURVEiLLANCE
After some general information and definitions about the aims of epidemiosurveillance, the animal epidemiosurveillance French networks are presented. They are ordered following theirs objectives (prevalence monitoring, exotic or new diseases epidemiosurveillance), their geographic coverage, the sampling of the monitored population, the way data are collected (direct or indirect) and the way their get their funding (autonomous or within sanitary campaign).
LOCAL FRENCH NETWORKS
The VEGA network was created in 1992, within the programme: “Midi-Pyrénées, a disease free region able to prove it and to let it know”. Its descriptive epidemiology action is devoted to important pathologies of local farming. In 1994, an act signed with the DGAl broaden its field of activity, giving it an experimental network status in a frame of sanitary priorities at a national level. The collection of sanitary data is organised by fields of activity. The partners of the network are the practitioners, D.S.V, Departments laboratories, slaughter houses, Toulouse Veterinary School, Farmers Association and rendering plants. The network has been really operational since October 1993. Up to now, the collected data have allowed estimation of prevalence rates, the creation of standard values and the beginning of more complex programmes. The VEGA network must, soon, prove its sanitary efficiency and the economic implications of its actions, within the frame of animal productions.
The epidemiology network called VIALINE (Vigilance, Alerte, Intervention and Evaluation) had been created by High Normandy veterinary practitioners, in relationship with the Veterinary Services and the Farmers Association of the region. It started with a quantification and a qualification of mortality in cattle. Considering the importance of caff mortality, specially linked to diarrhoea and to calving, VIALINE changes to CALF VIALINE, a one year survey concerning calf mortality and BVD. Then to join its cruising speed, VIALINE changed to SENTINELLE VETERINARIAN VIALINE (surveillance of infectious bovine enzootic bronchopneumonias, listeriosis, salmonellosis, Johne’s disease and hypodermosis) and to HIGH MORTALIY VIALINE (surveillance of anomalous mortalities, especially in adult cattle).
NATIONAL FRENCH NETWORKS
Drouin (P), Toux (YY), Guittet (M) & Bennejean (G)
The national network of epidemiological observation in poultry farming was started in 1987, following the demand of veterinary practitioners specialised in poultry diseases. Its first aims is alarm and exchanges of information related to pathological observations, through CNEVA Ploufragan. This laboratory acts as an epidemiological centre. RNOEA has 62 members: 35 practitioners and 27 laboratories that exchange an average of 900 information each month. The number of diseases under surveillance is not limited. Every poultry species is concerned. The geographical area covers the activity areas of members, i.e. where poultry farming is developed or organised. The data collections is made every month on a form sent by mail or fax. These data are free and voluntary notification. A monthly bulletin is sent back to every member. In addition, all these data are put together in an annual synthesis presented during an annual meeting of the members of the network. The results are used as decision tools by the members. They also help the Central Laboratory for poultry and pig farming researches of CNEVA Ploufragan to increase its performance in scientific and technical assistance as well as in epidemiological monitoring. Among the positive sides it must be said that 93 % of the laboratories and 83% of the practitioners participated in 1994. It also help to find out research subjects. The weak sides are linked to the commercial concurrence existing between the members, and to the rules that the members agreed: free participation, free to notify and private diffusion of the results. Two directions for evolution are discussed: calculation of prevalence rate and a quality approach by using HACCP method.
The important increase since 1986 in Great Britain of the incidence of BSE as well as the hypothesis of a possible transmission to man lead sanitary authorities to start in 1990 an epidemiosurveillance network to detect any possible case in France. This paper describes the legal disposition at the origin of the network its characteristics and the way it works.
RESAN was created in 1991 by CNEVA Sophia Antipolis and the Veterinary Services of Tarn-et-Garonne department (DSV 82), with the help of National Veterinary Services (DGAl) and the National Federation of local sanitary bee organisations. This national bee epidemiosurveillance network is devoted to the publications of data on importance and distribution of main bee diseases. The network is active and autonomous. At the local level it works with people for survey, sanitary agents and a coordinator: a technician from the local veterinary Services. The collection of data is performed with the help of a questionnaire made on a meeting eligibility criteria sample. Data transmission is by tele-computing to the computer located at the veterinary Services centre of department 82. The network can use either PC or Apple system. The statistical treatment of data and their interpretation are under CNEVA Sophia Antipolis responsibility. RESAN concerns, to day, 40 departments and 3% of bee national herd. It became an important tool for formation and information of bee keepers and sanitary agents. Its success and the results of 4 campaign lead its evolution: a better definition of the sample, to be able to control news pathologies and intoxications, and to include surveillance of bee hive products.
The microbiological surveillance network REMI, reorganised in 1989, is oriented towards the evaluation of the bacteriological contamination level of sea shores, especially shell farms areas, decision helping for restauration of water quality, the sanitary classification of shell farms areas and the definition of farming conditions thinking to public health protection. The surveillance organisation is made from a network of sampling places, distributed all over the sea shells areas, eithers farmed or natural, of French seashore. Bacteriological contamination of sea water is assessed by searching for and counting thermos-tolerant coliforms present in live shell from the spot. The sample and researches ae performed by teams belonging to 12 IFREMER by-the-sea laboratories. The results obtained today can be used to test pollution levels from seashell areas and to identify sensitive areas, where survey programmes can lead to a sanitary classification of the areas and there to take the best measures to protect seashells consumers.
Barrat (J), Eichenlaub (M), Artois (M) & Lamarque (F)
SAGIR network was started in 1986, from a first surveillance initiated in 1972 and from small game to the whole wild fauna. SAGIR is first an alarm network whose aim is to detect any important mortality or a major pathological phenomenon. An organization with a local (department) structure has been decided to get answers as quick as possible. The first analysis are performed at tis local level. Only specialized analysis are realized in national laboratories. The cost of these analysis are taken in charge by local hunter’s organisation. The results are collected by national laboratories who publish synthesis. The data are managed on a PC. This paper details the way the network works: national structure, organization of the data bank, and them shows an example of results.
FOREIGN NATIONAL NETWORKS
The aim of this article is to present the epidemiosurveillance network for animal diseases that exists in Quebec. Its describes the goals and the objectives of the Alarm and Zo-sanitary Information Network of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food of Quebec, and presents its elements, the way it works, the treatment and the diffusion of information’s. Different results obtained by the network are also exposed as its evolution and development possibilities.
The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) is an integrated national surveillance system which collects data on disease incidence and prevalence, mortality, frequency of practices and disease costs. Surveillance activities rely on collaboration with government agencies, universities, diagnostic laboratories, private veterinary practitioners and producer organizations. The historical development of NAHMS program, two surveillance programs involving diagnostic laboratories and sentinel veterinary practitioners and national commodity studies are described in the paper. National commodity studies incorporate confidential on-farm collection of health data and biological specimens and use statistically-based selection and estimation procedures which allow inferences to national livestock populations. A national survey of sow and litter health in 1990 and the proposed study of grower/finisher pig health in 1995 are used to demonstrate the components of such studies.
Since five years, every information relative to the occurrence of infectious diseases in horse received by a volunteer system of surveillance have been collected, analysed and sent back. Equinella has the following objectives to survey for all contagious disease of horses in all Switzerland; to analyse and to interpret the collecting data following their geographical and seasonable occurrence; to send back data at the national and international levels. The surveillance network covers the whole of Switzerland and some close areas from France, Germany, Austria and Italy. About 40 veterinary clinics far farm animal, 3 diagnosis laboratories, the 2 university clinics, the general stud farms and army veterinary office Division work together within the network. All participants have to send a report every fortnight, through a form, even if no case is reported. The notifications are volunteer. The collection, compiling, analysis, interpretation, as well as publication of the results are taken in charge by the Federal Veterinary Office. The diffusion of information is made every fortnight through the Office Bulletin. Every participant receive a free copy. The major part of the notified diseases are respiratory diseases. Strangles (Streptococcus equi) comes first for animals as well as for stables contamination and propagation. Rhodococcosis has been identified in Switzerland for the first time through Equinella. Our experience over this past five years shows that, even if Equinella is a simple and cheap system, it works correctly. Anyway, during the surveillance period, our horse population was free of more important epizootics that could have escaped to our control system.
A national system of disease monitoring in the Danish swine population based on the routinely collected slaughter inspection data from all slaughterhouses has been maintained for many years. A description the system is given and recent developments leading to changes in the system are outlined.
An Australian National Animal Health Information System has been established to provide an objective assessment of Australia’s animal health status. Good quality information is essential to support Australia’s exports of animals and animal products, and to satisfy Australia’s international reporting obligations on animal health. The system is based on routine monitoring of a selected number of diseases, supplemented by special studies and surveys. Long-term resourcing is currently under consideration by a high level government-industry group reviewing arrangements for the delivery of essential health service functions.
In order to carry out more effectively the task of disseminating information on the animal health situation worIdwide which it was assigned as long ago as 1924, the Office International des Epizooties (O.I.E.) has, since the early 1980s, operated an international animal disease reporting system in order to fulfil its mission to disseminate information on animal health status worldwide. The author describes the way in which the system functions and the main problems encountered in collecting data. He also provides an overview of discussions which have recently begun within the O.I.E. on the modernisation of the system, the revision of criteria for the categorisation of animal diseases and the setting up of procedures aimed at international recognition that countries are free from specific diseases.