PAPERS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
Perrin (B), Ardeeff (J-L), Perrin (M) & Brunet (J)
An epidemiological survey bas been carried out to evaluate the prevalence rate of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by ELISA tests on pooled sera in the Rhône-Alpes area. About 25 p. cent of herds were estimated infected. In 23 of these herds, less than 10 p. cent of animals were infected. The study led to the evaluation of the efficacy of pool sera analysis, showing that the sensitivity of commercial reagents must be increased for the detection of low infected herds.
Monicat (F), Borne (P-M) & Keravec (J)
To study mortality of young goats in rural areas of Zimbabwe, a multivariate survey was carried out in 9 study groups, made of farms following the different local breeding systems already identified in this traditional environment. Every study group is made of a supervisor, a surveyor, the farmers and their children and a school teacher. 4 591 adult animals (600 in each group) and their young were identified and were monitored one by one during 14 months. In the same time, all of the structures, technics and breeding habits that could have consequences on young goat mortality were described and analysed. The wholeness and the fiability of the data recorded are directly linked to the formation of the actors, to their good integration within the farming environment and to the information control process, in real time, as planned in the protocol.
Contreras de Vera (A), Leon Vizcaino (L), Cubera Pablo (MJ) & Herrera Maliani (C)
We studied the distribution and serotypes of Clostridium botulinum spores present in the Guadalquivir River Basin, Andalusia (Spain), in 1986-1987. 332 mud samples from 47 wetlands were analysed. It was found that 62 mud samples contained C. botulinum spores (18.67 %). In addition, 17 of the 21 wetlands in the Donana National Park and 10 of 26 wetlands in the Betic Endorrhoeic System were found to contain botulism spores. Canonical trend analysis suggested that concentration of C. botulinum spores are higher near mouth of Guadalquivir and it decreases as the Basin geographically goes up.
ANIMAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE: PROCEEDING AND METHOD may 21th, 1992
The Economic and Social Committee asked its agriculture and food section to prepare a report and an advice on epidemiology of farm animal diseases and on production valorisation on the 24th of October 1989. On its behalf, Mr Roger Buard draws a full picture of animal epidemiology in France. Then he makes proposals for a whole set of actions with the aim of organising and bringing coherence within all the work already done in this field. These actions will also help in realising epidemiological information systems adapted to the needs of all the actors of animal production and health and in developing research and formation in epidemiology.
This report first recalls the importance of epidemiological surveillance, some basic definitions, the aims and the functions of an animal epidemiosurveillance network. Then it explains the distinction between epidemiosurveillance and prophylaxis. It insists on the rights and duties of the partners of a network. It asks for the creation of a National Committee on Animal Epidemiosurveillance. It recalls the main rules to follow to obtain a good technical running for a network and asks that, for any network, the partners agree first on a convention. Then it presents propositions for new networks to be created or improved in three animal diseases categories: Animal disease existing in France with a heavy economic impact or dangerous for public health, exotic animal diseases, new diseases.
Two examples of realizations in standardization of epidemiological language are presented. The codification of words used in analysis and tests performed at the laboratory represents the backbone of any communication network between laboratories. The glossary of animal epidemiology puts together and explains the words used in this field. Before any communication and any epidemiological surveillance, a common language must be defined. To realize it, a lot of questions have to be answered.
After some definitions, the author introduces the actors and the steps of a leading scheme with the help of an example: the “Racines” method.
General Direction of Food (DGAI.) asserted its will to realize the directorial scheme for information and communication applied to animal epidemiological surveillance by setting up working groups and coordination structures. The national epidemiological surveillance network is managed by DGAl and by Veterinary Services Deputies. Sanitary veterinarians, laboratories, meat inspection at the slaughterhouse and farmers sanitary associations (G.D.S.) participate. CNEVA acts as an expert. Scenarios will be defined for every production. Action plans will come in to a global plan. It will have to take into account all the other networks already existing that must increase their coherence, and the epidemiology unit created by the European Commission.