SANITARY CRISIS MANAGEMENT. AEEMA meeting 19th MAY, 1994
The number collective food intoxications notified in France increased from 45 outbreaks in 1984 to 732 in 1992. The actions started in 1987 and 1988 to improve notification of such cases are the main explanation of this increase. However, Salmonella enteritidis infections linked to raw or lightly cooked eggs consumption are becoming a major problem. This situation explains specific measures of prevention taken for consumers and for egg production.
This paper describes the chronology of a food intoxication which involved several hundred children in nurseries and primary schools in Dijon. After this description, the management rules that can be deduced from this experience are presented.
Van de Wiele (A)
In July 1993, sheep flocks suddenly reported contagious agalactiae during summer time highland grazing pastures, in Ossau valley, department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques. The sanitary authorities where advised and laboratory tests confirmed the first results. All the flocks were put under surveillance and nomadic movements under control. At the end, 26 flocks out of 27 were slaughtered. This outbreak put into light problems related to sheep farming, technical limits, regulations, human factors and, of course, to extra costs of money. But if negative consequences do exist, with the slaughtering of 4500 ewes, there are also positive consequences. The preliminary assessment is satisfying, with the reciprocal engagement of local farmers and of sanitary authorities. All the consequences of this outbreak have not yet disappeared. There are still lessons to take, and now, new knowledge must be used as often as possible to prepare all local agricultural people to any possible new sanitary incident.
Vantemsche (P) & Saegerman (C)
Two epidemics of classical swine fever have appeared in Belgium 1993 and 1994. The data about these outbreaks, the management structures, the strategy which has been used and the organisation of the disease control are explained.
First, the author presents the usual characteristics of crisis as well as the lacks and blockages that contribute to their happening. Then he presents the learning stages to follow to stop their development.
PAPERS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
André-Fontaine (G), Ruvoen-Clouet (N) & Ganière (J-P)
The use of a comparative tuberculin skin test to distinguish between infections linked to tuberculous bacillus and infections linked to other mycobacteria can only be applied in case of herds, not in case of individuals. Interpretation can be difficult when the sample of animals chosen for the test in not representative of the herd, introducing then sampling bias (age grouped animals, animals after a first single tuberculin skin test). These difficulties are presented from field experienced examples.
This article presents parts of a thesis in biometrics, passed on June 4th, 1993 at Claude Bernard University, Lyon I, in France. From the example of an eco-pathological survey, looking at suckling cow’s non fecundity risk factors, it goes through the idea that herd pathology and the many factors linked to its development can be seen as complex systems, as studied in other fields (biology, ecology, sociology). It also looks the use of different data analysis methods, which, being complementary, allow a better analysis of reality. After the introduction, the main tables and figures of the thesis which present the main results are reproduced here, as well as part of the discussion related to multiple-tests, widely used in epidemiology although they represent a statistical problem, and the conclusion.
The method of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) is used to build and to implement quality control in the food industry. The purpose of this paper is to remind the principles of HACCP and to adapt them to the subject of epidemiosurveillance. The paper includes definitions of terms like “manufacturing, product, security, danger, critical control point”, in the field of epidemiosurveillance networks. It then gives a way of using the method in order to evaluate the proper functioning of an epidemiosurveillance network.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC SITUATION OF SOME ANIMAL DISEASES IN 1995
Toma (B), Buffereau (JP), Guillotin (J), Bataillon (G), Caquineau (L), Rose (R), Ménard (MF) & Michel (B)
This paper presents the epidemiological situation for Aujeszky’s disease in France during 1993, using tables and figures. The tracers used show that the situation in 1993 is very similar to this 1992.
Dufour (B) & Vaesken (L)
The state of the measures taken in France against EBL in 1993 presented with the help of tables and figures provided by the “Direction générale de l’alimentation”. From the indexes here used (infection rate, clinical outbreaks, culling …) it is possible to appreciate the fast improving of the situation for this disease. Nevertheless, there is still some work to do in the field of qualification of herds and of areas.
Garin-Bastuji (B), Gerbier (G), Douzal (Y), Vaucel (D), Hummel (N), Thiébaud (M), Grayon (M) & Verger (J-M)
The situation of cattle, sheep and goat brucellosis in France during 1993 is explained with the help of maps, tables and figures. The indexes here used show an improvement of the sanitary situation. The presentation of all Brucella strains isolated from animals in France is made. The biovars 1 and 3 of B. abortus and the biovar 3 of B. melitensis are the most isolated in cattle. Brucella suis biovar 2 was isolated in 1993 in swine, wild-boar and hare. Then the situation of non-specific serological reactions in bovine brucellosis during the 1993-1994 national surveillance campaign is presented. The problem, which appeared notably in 1990-1991, has considerably increased in 1992-1993 and kept stable in 1993-1994. Non-specific reacting herd rates reached however more than 10% in two departments.
Aubert (M), Barrat (J) & Masson (E)
The epidemiological situation of rabies in France and in Europe during 1993 is presented from tables, maps and graphs. Some new scientific and technical information, in the field of epidemiology or control of rabies, are documented.
During 1993, 420,000 cattle herds, i.e. 15.5 millions of cattle have been tested against tuberculosis. Annual prevalence percentage of infected herds was 0.25 %, the one for point prevalence on December 3I 0.12 % and incidence rate was 0.11 %. The rate for infected animals was 2.2 out of 10.000. The proportion of non-marked animals being seized was 15.9 %. The proportion of whole seizure on all the seizures was 13 %. General situation is good in many French departments. Control of health status of cattle introduced in healthy herds must remain the preoccupation of owners. Data suggest that infected non-reactors could play an important role in contamination of cattle.