EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE OF ANIIMAL DISEASES (A.E.E.M.A. meeting of May 23th 1985)
This first paper presents all the main idea about epidemiological surveillance and the logical steps leading to an epidemiological network of diseases monitoring.
Agricultural advices lay on nearly 3.000 watchers, all over the country, with the help of the Plant Protection Service. The collect and the processing of the data will be greatly increased by the use of computers. This new development is on its way but needs a lot of investments, both in hardware and in software. The dispatching of the data through post cards had been greatly improved. In the same time, the quality of the bulletin increased. “Telematics” will soon accelerate the transmission of the alert messages.
The aim of this study is the search of a better knowledge of sheep parasitism mechanisms in dry areas of South East of France, especially dealing with digestive and respiratory nematodes and Dicrocoelium sp. In this purpose, a method had been developed between 1978 and 1980. It works with faecal samples collected in control herds, representative of these regions and of their herding and production systems. Volunteer farmers are given the first rough results of the survey. Then, the whole data are analysed altogether. For ever parasite species the variation of the charge levels between samples gives the infestation risk. This infestation risk is translated into a four steps scale, easily interpreted by the farmer, and broadcasted all over the concerned territory through a news bulletin. This method, as far as the sampling is satisfactory, is able to link the variations in parasitic charges to meteorological data. However, every farmer has to position himself in comparison with the model proposed by the surveillance network
A study, carried out a few years ago in the South East of France, revealed the importance, for sheep and goats breeders, of the return of sanitary information from slaughterhouses. Since the beginning of 1984, two slaughterhouses have been engaged in collecting and recording every observed lesions. The recording unit is the flock, not the individual animal. Since August 1984, breeders have been sent mails, allowing them to follow the sanitary level of their own flocks.
The French veterinary sanitary bulletin has been published for a century. It gives important information’s about the evolution of notifiable diseases all over the national territory. Its contents, concerned only by a few diseases, is the result of a liable, official, process of sanitary information’s collecting, from every French “département”. The epidemiological surveillance networks using other data sources (laboratories, slaughterhouses and veterinarians), will certainly become, in the future, a normal and indispensable adding.
Microcomputers can be used by the epidemiological surveillance laboratory itself for the management of information at its even source. In doing so, modern rules of programming must be followed: structural analysis of problems, forecasting of the possibilities of evolution and the necessity of offering the services of truly conversational systems.
The International Office of Epizootics has in charge the collection and the rapid broadcast of information’s and statistics about the frequency and the evolutions of animal diseases all over the world. This knowledge is indispensable if member’s states of the Office want to be able to prevent any deteriorations of international zoo-sanitary situation, as the possible result of an increasing international animal’s traffic and of their products.
V.I.D.A. (Veterinary Investigation Diagnosis Analysis) is presented. This is the system in which data coming from local British Veterinary Investigations Centres are collected, on a national basis. This is especially useful for annual synthesis and for the constitution of a data bank on sanitary level domestic animals.
Coudert (M) & Tufféry (G)
The national network of sanitary control in bovine pathology had been initiated in the National Laboratory of Bovine Pathology, Lyon, France. It starts with the summing up of the results of the diagnoses realised in the departmental veterinary laboratories. These results, as well as the sums and the sanitary bulletins are teleprocessed. This system allows a permanent control over important bovine diseases such as bovine leucosis, calf diarrhoea, abortion, …
Garnerin (P), Heard (I), Bouvet (E), Ménarès (J) & Valleron (A-J)
For this national teleprocessing network of surveillance and information on transmissible diseases, which has been followed for eleven months now, following parts are here described: study participants, the specific diseases under control and the first results.
This paper describes a system of sanitary information’s collected from slaughterhouses in the four departments of Burgundy. Up to now, only cattle and pigs are concerned, but the other species should be included in the future. One thing to notice is that information are sent back to the breeders.
Short presentation to what is and what will be done for epidemiological surveillance in France.