EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION OF SOME ANIMAL DISEASES IN FRANCE DURING 1985
The epidemiological situation of rabies in France and in Europe during 1985 is presented from tables, maps and graphs. Some new scientific and technic information’s, in the field of epidemiology or control of rabies, are documented.
The epidemiological situation of bovine brucellosis is drawn from the data of the annual surveys process by the veterinary service for animal health and protection. These surveys, fill by each department veterinary service, give the number of animals present and tested, the situation on December the 31st and the number of culling, prevention and testing operations made during the year.
Buy (C) & Gaillot (B)
Available data about control of enzootic bovine leucosis are presented following the sources (sanitary bulletin, annual report of Direction Générale de l’Alimentation, surveys from department veterinary services). The precision of the data about the latently form of the disease is still too low to draw any conclusion, because of the beginning of many local actions.
Toma (B), Bijlenga (G), Vigouroux (A), Ursache (R), Lorant (J-M), Duée (J-P), David (C), Rose (R), Goyon (M), Eloit (M), Prévost (P) & Le Gardinier (J-C)
The epidemiological situation of Aujeszky’s disease in France has been evaluated by the number of clinical outbreaks through virus isolation. The situation has been improved in 1985 as compared to previous years. The various susceptible animal species acting as a sentinel show a decline in the number of outbreaks. In the case of domestic’s carnivores: 146 outbreaks in 1983, 100 in 1984 and 60 in 1985. For cattle: 44 outbreaks in 1983, 19 in 1984 and 11 in 1985. However, the degree of infection in swine is still quite high in some regions as it has been shown by means of various serological surveys.
The results of the campaign against bovine tuberculosis in France in France during 1985 show a new decrease in the infection rates. The infected hers rate on December the 31th is 0.47% (0.51% in 1984; 0.62% in 1983). As a whole, 20 374 heads of cattle have been culled, 1987 not marked, 18 387 marked. 13 577 animals gave a positive reaction, 6 326 of which having lesions. The rate of total seizure on non-marked animals (35,6%) his very high, showing the danger of any tuberculosis reservoir. An assistance, to the analysis of the situation find in departments following rates of the disease is introduced in the discussion.
Brief review of the clinical and epidemiological knowledge concerning Lyme disease. This zoonosis due to a Borrelia remains imperfectly known, mainly in Europe.
Artois (M) & Le Pesteur (M-H)
The estimation of the prevalence of the disease of infection is highly dependent on the employed techniques. The percentage of infected sheep extends from 49% (Belgium or France) to 85% in Morocco. A more accurate assessment of infection (average number of larvae per gram of faeces), discriminates between low-rate infection (Northern-Europe), medium (centre and Western Europe) and high-rate infection (Mediterranean countries). The most common species is Muellerius capillaris. The northern regions are characterized by Muellerius and Protostrongylus whether the southern ones present higher frequencies of Cystocaulus spp. and Neostrongylus linearis. The infection by Protostrongylids induces lesions on the lungs. They might be petechial, nodular or diffuse; they are mostly on the diaphragmatic lobes (87% of the cases in Morocco). These lesions are associated with a higher prevalence of Pasteurella spp. and Salmonella abortus-ovis in Spain. The heavy infection by Protostrongylids is apparently related to lower productions (number of live lambs three months post-partum) and over-mortality among ewes. The screening of more than 300 articles was involved in this review.
The foot and mouth disease control policies in use nowadays in France started more than twenty years ago. The evolution of the epidemiology of the disease as well as of the economical and sanitary situations, in France and in Europe, are in favour of the reflexion about a possible evolution of the control policies. This analysis tries to describe the parameters involved and take in account their possible roles in present or future situations. One of the aims of this first study may be to look for decrease in the cost of the prevention but certainly not an increase of the risk of introducing the disease in France.