OPERATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGY (A.E.E.M.A. meeting of May 19th, 1988)
Introducing the lectures of the meeting on « Operational epidemiology”, the author gives the frame, the method and the steps of this process, oriented towards action in epidemiology.
The author presents here the main lines of the management of biological projects with the help of two examples: a project of industrial innovation and a project of epidemiological research.
The author uses the example of group food toxi-infections to present the process of intervening epidemiology: description, analysis and evaluation.
With the help of two examples (poliomyelitis in Senegal and rabies in Peru), the author analyses the evaluation of vaccination efficiency, which leads to specific vaccination strategy.
With the help of different examples, the author brings into light different situations met by the people whose responsibilities are to participate to decisions in health field: how to define needs, how to follow a straight scientific analysis, how to find the real sponsor, how to deal with complex multidisciplinary and multi-sectorial programmes and even how to face known solutions hard or impossible to apply.
Taking the example of actions against bovine tuberculosis in France, the relationship between prophylaxis and operational epidemiology is discussed. The first word means only control action. The second one is linked to all the epidemiological data needed for the control action, at every step, from conception to final evaluation, including the monitoring of the process. This idea means that people involved in such situations have to know the corresponding epidemiological concepts and how to use them.
In front of foot and mouth disease, action can take place at different levels: local (outbreak situation), national or even continental. The specific tools for these different steps are presented in the first part. The second part puts into light an example in the case of the reflexion linked to modify the anti-Foot and Mouth disease strategy in France. A method like decision analysis helps to cope with such a complexity.
PAPERS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
Garin-Bastuji (B), Colcanap (M) & Trap (D)
The authors describe here a case of developing brucellosis in a previously brucellosis-free herd, in the region of Brittany where the prevalence of the diseases is very low. They conclude that it might be an infection maintained in the herd by the watchdog, during three years and between two episodes of acute brucellosis of cattle. This assumption is supported by the fact that the serological titre of the dog increased notably between the two episodes and that the same strain of Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated in the two species. The authors come to the conclusion that watchfulness is required for the prophylaxis of brucellosis, and explain that, especially in this no vaccination stage, all the species must be controlled.
The main symptoms which can be recorded on poultry during pathological episode are presented.