EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ANIMAL HEALTH
Toma (B), Lorant (J-M), Duée (J-P), Lery (L), Vigouroux (A), Rose (R), David (C), Maire (C), Eloit (M), Goyon (M), Laurent (J) & Tkaczuk Moquay (V)
The improvement of the epidemiological situation of Aujeszky disease in France, already mentioned these past years, continue in 1987. However, the infection increased in Pas-de-Calais, and Brittany in still heavily infected.
The author presents the evolution of hog cholera and African swine fever in Europe during 1987. Overall, in situation for hog cholera seems to be improving. African Swine Fever stands still.
Blancou (J) & Barrat (J)
The epidemiological situation of rabies in France and in Europe during 1987 is presented from tables, maps and graphs. Some new scientific and technical information’s, in the field of epidemiology or control of rabies, are documented.
In this article, the sanitary situation of bovine brucellosis in France, during 1987, is described. The overall situation is satisfying although some focuses are still not yet controlled in the North-East of the country and along Pyrenean border.
The results of the actions taken against enzootic bovine leukosis in France during 1987, are presented with the help of maps and tables. The average infection rate for herds is 9%, for animals 1.9%. These actions, undertaken during 1987, show dramatic results at the beginning of 1988. If these trends are maintained, it may be hoped a nearly elimination of the disease in 1993.
The prophylaxis of bovine tuberculosis in 1987 concerned twenty millions heads of cattle, representing 570.000 herds. The rate of infected herds in still decreasing: annual prevalence is 0.63%, point prevalence (on December the 31st) is 0.36% and incidence is 0.34%. The proportion of cleansed herds is decreasing (43.5% versus 49.3% last year). The herds with partial culling, representing 91% of infected herds, have an average size (35.5) and then total culling herd average size (27.9). The slaughterhouse findings are 18% lower this year than last year figures. This reduction concerns mainly partial and visceral seizures. On the contrary, the proportion of marked animal wholly seized increased. From this, it can be said that the activity of tuberculous reservoir is decreasing when detection is improving. A higher effort directed at tuberculosis reservoir is improving. At higher effort directed at tuberculosis reservoir, low proportion of tuberculous farms as well as a better specificity of screening (use of the comparative skin test) should speed up these trends toward eradication.
Vannier (P) & Le Foll (P)
The sanitary situation of the French pig’s herds is compared with the one of the other neighbouring countries in Europe. The story of the Aujeszky disease (A.D.) in France can be divided in three periods. From 1984, control measures have been applied according to the regional conditions established from a preliminary epidemiological inquiry. In four French regions, the efficiency of the applied measures can be estimated. Except in two departments, the eradication programme can be considered as successful with a moderates average cost (30 FF per sow and per year). In two other European countries, an eradication scheme has been set up: Denmark and Great-Britain, farmers have to pay 30 pence per sold pig until mid-1989, i.e. for 6 years. In the other countries, the situation is more confused and difficult to evaluate. In Belgium and Netherlands, all the breeders are systematically vaccinated and a high proportion of the fattening pigs is also vaccinated. Whereas, in E.E.C., an eradication programme for Classical Swine Fever (C.S.F.) has been set up since 1980, the prevalence of the disease is variable form one country to another. Denmark, Great-Britain and Ireland are officially free of C.S.F.. In France, outbreaks appeared these last two years were induced by the introduction of infected animals from the neighbourhood or the uses of swill in the eastern part of the country. No vaccination is done since 1983. After a severe epizooty of C.S.F. between 1983 and 1985 in Belgium, Netherlands and Germany, the number of outbreaks decreased roughly in these countries; nevertheless, the proportion of the vaccinated pig population remains nowadays high. African Swine Fever (A.S.F.) exists in enzootic state in Spain, Portugal and Sardinia. The other E.E.C. countries are permanently in a risk situation. So, A.S.F. outbreaks appeared in 1985 in Belgium and in 1986 in Netherlands. The initial outbreaks were provoked by the uses of infected swill. At last, for the five later years, except in Belgium, France, Great-Britain and Switzerland, no European country remained free of Foot and Mouth Disease. But generally, except in Italy, the number of outbreaks was low and the infection could be controlled rapidly.
A standard check-list of the main symptoms to be observed in domesticated mammals is presented. The first part deals with global historical data, then symptoms are presented following the different apparatuses.